As toxic chemicals produced by molds, mycotoxins pose a persistent and widespread threat. Mycotoxins can grow on field crops, or appear when harvesting, transporting raw materials (RM), or storing RM in silos, rooms, or bags. During feed production, factory storage and transportation to the farm, mold and mycotoxins will continue to grow. In farms, molds and mycotoxins will grow in feed silos and feed troughs, threatening the health and production performance of animals.
Many factors, including the type of animal in question, the amount of toxin consumed by the animal, the type and amount of mycotoxins in the feed, the age and sex of the animal, and the duration of exposure to the toxin, all affect the degree of toxicity of the animal. Such a complex challenge requires an integrated approach, because even an overlooked factor can hinder mycotoxin control efforts.
Although not all mycotoxins pose a risk to human health, Trouw Nutrition follows a strict Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) method to manage mycotoxins risks. Some basic components of the protocol are described here.
Crop management is the first step in an effective mycotoxin management strategy. Fungi-producing and pathogenic fungi invade plants from the soil. Appropriate agro-climatic conditions trigger the production of mycotoxins in plants, and the mycotoxins are then distributed in various parts of the plant, including grains. Non-pathogenic fungi can also invade plants through wounds and damage caused by invading plant pests.
Farm management practices to deal with these risks include proper farming, soil treatment, crop rotation practices, the use of anti-fungal and insect-resistant crop varieties, and the use of effective fungicides and pesticides. Practice should also include biological control measures for fungus and pest management. The digital platform module can guide farmers through the integrated weather forecast system and modeling methods to predict the occurrence of mycotoxins in the production of raw materials.
2 The key requirements for protecting ingredients after harvest and during storage include accurate monitoring of mycotoxin contamination after harvest and the use of automated spectral imaging techniques to separate contaminated grains and other products before storage. The storage support system should include the use of liquid (preferred) or powder form of anti-fungal agent for anti-corrosion treatment, and automatic real-time monitoring of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide levels in the silo as risk level monitoring markers.
Innovative pre-grinding and grinding strategies are equally important for controlling mycotoxins. Peeling and micro-ionization are two major strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Separating bran and other by-products can effectively reduce mycotoxin contamination in milled products for human consumption. Milling by-products are often used in feed, which increases the risk of mycotoxin contamination. Whenever by-products are used in feed production, a clear mycotoxin monitoring strategy and strict quality control measures need to be formulated.
An effective monitoring system, optimal mycotoxin analysis and data management are essential for mapping the mycotoxin levels in different RMs and finished products. Need to monitor and analyze local and imported RM. Due to the interaction of multiple mycotoxins, a country that uses domestic and imported RMs at the same time usually faces greater mycotoxin challenges. Since feed processors and integrators must quickly decide whether to accept or reject RM, ELISA-based mycotoxin analysis tools are needed. Although the analysis of as many mycotoxins as possible will enhance the understanding of total animal toxicity, the "six major" mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, DON, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, and fumarene) Bacteriocin B1) analysis is considered sufficient for quality control purposes. The mycotoxin analysis strategy needs to be improved to limit the contaminated raw materials so that their use does not violate the laws of the region or adversely affect the health or performance of livestock.
Trouw Nutrition is committed to providing food for the future and has developed an effective mycotoxin risk management strategy that can be used in feed mills and farms. Mycotoxin management monitoring is carried out using Mycomaster's global network of rapid mycotoxin monitoring tools (see main picture). The web notification serves as a database of monitoring tools, providing real-time information about the global mycotoxins situation (specific mycotoxins and their prevalence). It also provides risk assessments for various species through Trouw Nutrition's digital platforms such as NutriOpt Mycotoxin Monitor and NutriOpt Mycotoxin Adviser. Mycotoxin Monitor provides country-specific mycotoxin profiles, various species risk assessments and potential solutions for RM and feed. Mycotoxin Adviser provides livestock producers with customized advice on their own feed and RM.
It is essential to audit feed mills to manage hygiene. To prevent mycotoxins, mold growth should be avoided during the feed production stage, especially in silos, mixers, elevators and pellet coolers. Adding mycotoxin adsorbent to complete feed is a practical and effective management method. However, due to the different structures and polarities of mycotoxins, only relying on the mycotoxin binding strategy cannot solve the challenges posed by multiple mycotoxins. Trouw Nutrition has developed Toxo-XL to solve the complexity of managing multiple mycotoxins. Toxo-XL uses three modes of action to manage multiple mycotoxins. Recent in vivo studies conducted in broilers and laying hens have shown that this innovation has excellent efficacy against a variety of mycotoxins (Figure 1). In the study, the return on investment (ROI) of Toxo-XL included was approximately 4:1. The study also proved that, in addition to combining with mycotoxins, it should also include technologies to improve animal intestinal integrity and immunity as part of the overall solution for multiple mycotoxins.
Author: Dr. Swamy Haladi, Global Project Manager, Mycotoxin Risk Management, Trouw Nutrition
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